Culture of Bihar

Culture of Bihar, nikhilesh mishra

Culture is an integral part of the identity of Bihar, a state located in the eastern part of India. The state is home to a rich cultural heritage that has evolved over centuries of history and diversity. Bihar has been a center of civilization and learning since ancient times, and its culture reflects a blend of various traditions and customs. The culture of Bihar is deeply rooted in its ancient history, and its people take immense pride in preserving and celebrating their cultural heritage. From music, dance, and festivals to food and handicrafts, Bihar’s culture is a fascinating tapestry of traditions that have been passed down from generation to generation. This article explores the diverse cultural aspects of Bihar and sheds light on the unique features that make it stand out among other states of India.

Art and architecture

Bihar, one of the most ancient and culturally rich states of India, is famous for its unique art and architecture. Its cultural heritage dates back to the Mauryan era, which saw the birth of the famous Ashoka pillars, and has continued to evolve through the Gupta and Pala periods. Bihar has been home to many famous artists and architects who have left behind a legacy of magnificent monuments and art forms that have stood the test of time.

Art in Bihar is mainly influenced by religion, with Hinduism, Buddhism, and Islam playing a significant role in shaping its artistic landscape. The art of Bihar is diverse and includes painting, sculpture, pottery, weaving, and metalwork. One of the most notable art forms in Bihar is Madhubani painting, which is an ancient folk art that originated in the Mithila region. Madhubani paintings are known for their bright colors, intricate designs, and unique themes, such as mythology, nature, and social issues.

Another famous art form of Bihar is the art of terracotta. It involves molding clay into intricate shapes and designs to create sculptures, figurines, and pottery. The terracotta art of Bihar is a reflection of the rich history and culture of the region, and the unique designs and motifs used in this art form showcase the skill and creativity of the artisans.

Bihar is also home to many magnificent architectural marvels that have stood the test of time. One of the most famous examples of ancient architecture in Bihar is the Mahabodhi Temple in Bodh Gaya. It is an important Buddhist pilgrimage site and is known for its magnificent architecture and intricate carvings.

Another example of the rich architectural heritage of Bihar is the Nalanda University ruins. The Nalanda University was once a center of learning and one of the most significant Buddhist monasteries in the world. The ruins of this ancient university are a testimony to the rich architectural heritage of Bihar and attract tourists from all over the world.

In addition to these ancient monuments, Bihar is also home to many modern architectural marvels such as the Bihar Museum in Patna. The Bihar Museum is a world-class museum that showcases the history, culture, and art of Bihar through a vast collection of artifacts and exhibits.

In conclusion, art and architecture have been an integral part of the cultural heritage of Bihar for centuries. The unique art forms and magnificent monuments that dot the landscape of Bihar are a testament to the rich history and culture of the region. These art forms and architectural marvels are not only a source of pride for the people of Bihar but also attract tourists from all over the world. The government of Bihar should take steps to preserve and promote the rich cultural heritage of the state to ensure that future generations can continue to enjoy and appreciate this rich legacy.

Music and dance

Bihar is a state in eastern India that is rich in cultural heritage. Its history is marked by various dynasties that ruled over the region, leaving behind a significant impact on its art and architecture, music, and dance. The state is famous for its traditional music, which is a blend of classical, folk, and devotional music, and its vibrant dance forms that have gained international recognition. In this article, we will delve into the world of music and dance in Bihar.

Music in Bihar: Music in Bihar has a long history and is deeply rooted in the culture and traditions of the state. The classical music of Bihar is known as “Bihar Gharana,” which has produced several renowned musicians over the years. The Bihari classical music is a blend of the Dhrupad, Khayal, and Thumri styles of Hindustani classical music. Some of the famous exponents of classical music from Bihar include Bhikhari Thakur, who is considered the father of Bihari folk theatre, and Ustad Bismillah Khan, the legendary Shehnai maestro.

Apart from classical music, Bihar is also famous for its folk music, which is an integral part of the state’s cultural fabric. The folk music of Bihar is diverse and includes various genres such as Bhojpuri, Maithili, Magahi, and Angika. These music genres have their unique style and rhythm, which is a reflection of the local culture and traditions. The folk songs of Bihar are often sung during festivals, weddings, and other social occasions.

Dance in Bihar: Bihar is home to several traditional dance forms, which have gained recognition both nationally and internationally. The state is known for its vibrant and colorful dances, which are a blend of classical and folk styles. Some of the famous dance forms of Bihar include:

Jat-Jatin: It is a popular dance form of Bihar that is performed by men and women during the harvest season. The dancers wear traditional attire and move in circular formations while playing musical instruments.

Jhumar: Jhumar is a folk dance of Bihar that is performed during weddings and other festive occasions. It is characterized by vigorous and energetic movements and is often performed by a group of dancers.

Kathak: Kathak is a classical dance form that originated in Northern India and is popular in Bihar. It is a storytelling dance form that involves intricate footwork, hand gestures, and facial expressions.

Bidesia: Bidesia is a folk dance form of Bihar that is performed by men and women. It depicts the pain of migration and the longing for the homeland.

In conclusion, the art, music, and dance of Bihar are a reflection of its rich cultural heritage. The state has produced several renowned musicians, artists, and dancers who have contributed significantly to the Indian cultural scene. The traditional music and dance forms of Bihar have been passed down from generation to generation and continue to thrive even today. They are an essential part of the state’s cultural fabric and play a vital role in preserving its unique identity. With its vibrant culture and artistic traditions, Bihar continues to inspire and enchant people from all over the world.


Bihar, the land of Buddha and Mahavira, is a culturally rich state in India. The state boasts a vibrant and diverse cultural heritage, which is reflected in its festivals and celebrations. Festivals in Bihar are celebrated with great enthusiasm and fervor, bringing together people from all walks of life. From religious festivals to cultural fairs, Bihar has a lot to offer.

Chhath Puja, one of the most significant festivals in Bihar, is celebrated with great devotion and faith. It is a four-day festival that is dedicated to the worship of the Sun God and his wife, Usha. The festival is celebrated in the months of October-November and is a major attraction for tourists from all over the country. The festival involves taking a holy dip in the river and offering prayers to the Sun God.

Another significant festival in Bihar is the Sonepur Mela. It is held in the month of November and is one of the largest cattle fairs in Asia. The festival is held on the banks of the River Ganges and is a major attraction for tourists and traders from all over the world. The fair offers a unique experience to visitors, who can witness a range of activities, including horse trading, cattle trading, and elephant rides.

Apart from these, Bihar also celebrates other festivals like Holi, Diwali, Durga Puja, and Eid-ul-Fitr, among others. These festivals are celebrated with great zeal and enthusiasm, bringing together people from different communities and religions.

The state of Bihar also has a rich tradition of folk music and dance. The Bihari folk songs are a unique blend of classical and folk music and are popular among the people of the state. Some of the popular folk songs of Bihar include the Bidesia, Nirgun, and Bhakti songs. The Bhojpuri language, which is spoken in Bihar, has contributed significantly to the development of Bihari folk music.

Bihar is also known for its traditional dance forms like Jat-Jatin, Karma, and Chhau. These dances are performed during festivals and special occasions and are characterized by their vibrant costumes and music.

In conclusion, Bihar is a state that is steeped in culture and tradition. Its festivals, music, and dance are an integral part of its cultural heritage and are celebrated with great enthusiasm and joy. The state’s rich history and diverse cultural traditions make it a unique and fascinating destination for travelers and tourists who are interested in experiencing the cultural richness of India.


Bihar, a state in eastern India, is known for its rich cultural heritage, which includes its cuisine. The cuisine of Bihar is a reflection of its history, geography, and socio-cultural practices. The traditional Bihari cuisine is predominantly vegetarian, but there are many non-vegetarian delicacies that are popular as well. The food in Bihar is known for its simplicity and subtle flavors, and it is often prepared using locally grown ingredients.

One of the most popular dishes in Bihar is Litti Chokha. Litti is a type of baked dough made of wheat flour and stuffed with a mixture of sattu (roasted gram flour), herbs, and spices. It is usually served with Chokha, a side dish made of mashed boiled potatoes, tomatoes, and eggplants, flavored with mustard oil and spices. Another popular dish is Sattu Paratha, which is a flatbread made of wheat flour stuffed with sattu and spices. It is usually served with aloo chokha, a side dish made of mashed boiled potatoes, onions, and spices.

Bihar is also known for its sweet delicacies such as Khaja, Anarsa, Balushahi, and Thekua. Khaja is a deep-fried pastry made of wheat flour and coated with sugar syrup. Anarsa is a sweet made of rice flour and sugar, which is deep-fried and coated with sesame seeds. Balushahi is a sweet made of wheat flour and sugar syrup, which is deep-fried and soaked in sugar syrup. Thekua is a sweet made of wheat flour, sugar, and ghee, which is deep-fried and served as a snack.

Bihar is also known for its beverages such as Lassi, Chaas, and Thandai. Lassi is a drink made of curd, sugar, and water, which is blended to a smooth consistency. Chaas is a drink made of buttermilk, cumin seeds, and salt, which is served cold. Thandai is a refreshing drink made of milk, almonds, pistachios, fennel seeds, and cardamom, which is served chilled.

In conclusion, the cuisine of Bihar is simple yet flavorful, with a variety of vegetarian and non-vegetarian dishes. The use of locally grown ingredients and subtle spices adds a distinct flavor to the food. The sweets and beverages of Bihar are also unique and flavorful. The cuisine of Bihar is an essential part of its culture and heritage, and it continues to attract food lovers from all over the world.


Bihar is a state rich in culture, tradition and art. The state is famous for its unique handicrafts which have gained popularity worldwide. The handicrafts of Bihar are a blend of different styles and techniques that have been passed down through generations. From Madhubani paintings to Sujni embroidery, the state has a lot to offer when it comes to handicrafts. In this article, we will delve deeper into the handicrafts of Bihar, exploring their history, techniques and popularity.
History of Handicrafts in Bihar: Handicrafts have been an integral part of Bihar’s culture for centuries. The state has a rich history of craftsmanship, with artisans producing a wide range of products that are not only functional but also aesthetically pleasing. The history of handicrafts in Bihar can be traced back to the Indus Valley Civilization, where pottery was a common craft. With time, the art of pottery evolved into various other crafts like weaving, embroidery, stone carving, and metalwork.
Techniques Used in Handicrafts: Bihar’s handicrafts are made using a variety of techniques, each unique to the craft. Some of the popular techniques used in Bihar’s handicrafts are:
Madhubani Painting: It is a traditional art form of Bihar, also known as Mithila painting. The paintings are done using fingers, twigs, brushes, nib-pens, and matchsticks. The colors used in these paintings are derived from natural sources like flowers, leaves, and other natural substances.
Sujni Embroidery: It is a form of embroidery that involves a running stitch done on layers of cloth. The embroidery is done using colorful threads, creating intricate designs.
Stone Carving: Stone carving is a popular craft in Bihar, and artisans use different types of stones like granite, sandstone, and marble to create various items.
Tikuli Art: Tikuli art is a craft of creating delicate, hand-painted ornaments made from glass. The ornaments are painted with vibrant colors and intricate designs.
Popularity of Handicrafts in Bihar: Bihar’s handicrafts have gained immense popularity worldwide, with tourists flocking to the state to get their hands on these unique products. The state is home to a large number of skilled artisans who have been practicing their craft for generations. The Government of Bihar has also taken steps to promote these handicrafts by providing training and support to artisans.
In conclusion, Bihar’s handicrafts are a testament to the state’s rich culture and tradition. The state’s skilled artisans have been producing these unique products for centuries, and their art has gained popularity worldwide. The government’s efforts to promote these handicrafts have also helped in preserving the state’s culture and heritage. Bihar’s handicrafts are not only a source of income for the artisans but also a source of pride for the state.
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