Glossary of Biology Terms and Definitions

Biology, the scientific study of living organisms and their interactions, encompasses a vast array of concepts, principles, and terminology. This glossary provides an in-depth compilation of essential biology terms and their definitions, aiding readers in understanding the intricacies of this diverse field.

Cell: The basic structural and functional unit of all living organisms, capable of self-reproduction and performing essential life processes.

DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid): The molecule carrying genetic information in all living organisms. It consists of two strands forming a double helix and encodes the instructions for the development, functioning, and reproduction of cells and organisms.

Evolution: The process of gradual change and adaptation of species over time through natural selection and genetic variation.

Ecology: The study of the interactions between organisms and their environment, including the relationships between living organisms and their physical surroundings.

Photosynthesis: The biochemical process by which green plants and some other organisms convert light energy into chemical energy, producing oxygen and organic compounds (like glucose) from carbon dioxide and water.

Respiration: The cellular process by which organisms release energy from organic compounds and use it to perform vital functions.

Genetics: The study of genes, heredity, and genetic variation in living organisms.

Protein: A complex organic molecule made up of amino acids, serving various structural, functional, and regulatory roles in cells.

Enzyme: A protein that acts as a biological catalyst, accelerating chemical reactions in living organisms.

Species: A group of living organisms capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring under natural conditions.

Adaptation: The process by which an organism adjusts to its environment to increase its chances of survival and reproduction.

Mitosis: The process of cell division in which a single cell divides into two identical daughter cells, each with the same number of chromosomes as the parent cell.

Meiosis: The process of cell division in specialized cells called gametes (sperm and egg cells), resulting in the formation of haploid cells with half the number of chromosomes.

Homeostasis: The ability of an organism or cell to maintain internal stability and balance in response to changes in the external environment.

Mutation: A permanent alteration in the DNA sequence of a gene or chromosome, leading to genetic variation and potential evolutionary changes.

Hormone: A chemical messenger produced by glands in the endocrine system, regulating various physiological processes and maintaining homeostasis.

Ecological Niche: The specific role and position of a species within an ecosystem, including its interactions with other species and its habitat requirements.

Biome: A large geographical area characterized by its distinctive climate, vegetation, and animal life.

Biodiversity: The variety of life forms present in a particular ecosystem, region, or the entire planet.

Genome: The complete set of genetic material (DNA) present in an organism or a species.

This glossary provides only a glimpse into the vast terminology of biology. As the field continues to evolve and expand, new terms and concepts will emerge. By familiarizing themselves with this glossary, students, researchers, and enthusiasts can enhance their understanding of biological principles and explore the wonders of the living world.

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