Jajmani System

The Jajmani system is a traditional socio-economic system that was prevalent in rural India, particularly in the northern parts of the country. It is a system of interdependent occupational groups, where each group is dependent on the other for their livelihood. The system is hierarchical in nature, with each occupational group being placed in a particular position in the social hierarchy. The Jajmani system is characterized by the exchange of goods and services between the different occupational groups, with each group having a specific role to play in the economic and social functioning of the village. In this system, the patron-client relationship plays a significant role, where the patrons provide economic and social support to the clients in exchange for goods and services. The Jajmani system has been an important area of study in the field of sociology, as it provides insights into the traditional social structure of rural India and the interdependent relationships between different occupational groups.

Introduction to the Jajmani System

The Jajmani system is a traditional form of occupational and social organization in rural India. It is a system of exchange between different castes or communities where the lower castes provide various goods and services to the upper castes in exchange for patronage and protection. The term “jajmani” is derived from the Sanskrit word “jajman,” which means a patron or a protector. The system is believed to have originated in the pre-colonial period and has been a dominant feature of rural society in India for centuries.

The Jajmani system is a complex system of social organization that is based on the principles of reciprocity and interdependence. It is a system of economic, social, and cultural relations between different castes or communities, which has played a significant role in shaping rural society in India. Under this system, each caste or community is assigned a specific occupation, which is passed down from generation to generation. The occupation is usually determined by the caste’s traditional skills and knowledge, and the caste members are expected to provide their services to the upper castes or communities.

The Jajmani system is based on the idea of mutual interdependence and is structured around the relationships between the different castes or communities. Each caste or community is expected to provide specific goods and services to the upper castes or communities, and in exchange, they receive patronage and protection. The system is hierarchical, and each caste or community has a specific place in the social order. The upper castes or communities are considered to be superior and are accorded a higher status, while the lower castes or communities are considered to be inferior and are accorded a lower status.

The Jajmani system has been criticized by many as being a form of exploitation, as it perpetuates the unequal distribution of wealth and power in society. The system has also been blamed for promoting caste-based discrimination and reinforcing social inequality. However, proponents of the system argue that it has played an essential role in maintaining social stability and order in rural India.

In the following sections, we will discuss the different aspects of the Jajmani system in detail and examine its role in shaping rural society in India.

In conclusion, the Jajmani system is a traditional form of occupational and social organization in rural India. It is a complex system of social relations between different castes or communities, based on the principles of reciprocity and interdependence. The system has played a significant role in shaping rural society in India and has been a dominant feature of rural life for centuries. While it has been criticized for perpetuating social inequality and promoting caste-based discrimination, proponents of the system argue that it has played an essential role in maintaining social stability and order in rural India.

Historical Development of the Jajmani System

The Jajmani system, also known as the “feudal system of production”, was a traditional economic system prevalent in rural India for centuries. It involved an exchange of goods and services between different castes, with each caste performing specific tasks for the other in a mutually beneficial relationship. This system was prevalent in parts of India until the mid-20th century and played an important role in the social, economic, and political life of rural India. In this article, we will explore the historical development of the Jajmani system, its evolution over time, and the factors that led to its eventual decline.

Origins of the Jajmani System: The Jajmani system finds its roots in the caste system prevalent in ancient India. The system was based on the principle of division of labor, with each caste specializing in a particular task or trade. The Brahmins, for instance, were responsible for performing religious ceremonies and providing education, while the Kshatriyas were responsible for defending the kingdom and the Vaishyas for trade and commerce. The Shudras, on the other hand, were relegated to menial tasks and were considered to be at the bottom of the social hierarchy.

Evolution of the Jajmani System: As India evolved into a feudal society, the Jajmani system gained prominence. Under this system, the higher castes or jajmans would provide land, money, and protection to the lower castes or kaminas in exchange for their labor and services. The jajmans were responsible for providing economic and social support to the kaminas and their families, and the kaminas were expected to perform their duties diligently and remain loyal to their jajmans.

Factors that led to the decline of the Jajmani System: The Jajmani system was prevalent in rural India until the mid-20th century, but it gradually declined with the advent of modernization and the changing economic and social structures in India. The factors that led to the decline of the Jajmani system are as follows:

Urbanization: With the growth of urban centers and the expansion of the industrial sector, many people moved from rural areas to urban centers in search of employment opportunities. This led to a decline in the traditional agrarian economy and the Jajmani system.

Modernization: With the introduction of modern technologies and machines, many of the tasks performed by the kaminas became redundant. This led to a decline in the demand for their services, and the jajmans started to rely on wage labor instead.

Social and Political Movements: The Indian independence movement and the social reform movements led to the questioning of the caste system and the Jajmani system. This led to a decline in the power and influence of the jajmans, and the kaminas were able to assert their rights and demand better working conditions and wages.

In conclusion, the Jajmani system played an important role in the social and economic life of rural India for centuries. It provided a framework for the exchange of goods and services between different castes and helped to maintain social harmony and stability. However, with the advent of modernization and the changing economic and social structures in India, the Jajmani system gradually declined. While it may no longer be as prevalent as it once was, the legacy of the Jajmani system lives on in the social and economic relationships that continue to exist between different castes in rural India.

Structure and Functioning of the Jajmani System

The Jajmani system is a traditional system of inter-caste relations that existed in the rural parts of India. The system was prevalent in the pre-independence era and continued even after independence. It is a complex system that involves a hierarchical relationship between the different castes in a village. The term Jajmani is derived from the Sanskrit word Jajman, which means a patron or protector. The system was based on the exchange of goods and services between different castes, and the duties and obligations were defined by the custom and tradition of the village.

Structure and Functioning of the Jajmani System: The Jajmani system was a system of interdependence between the different castes in a village. The system was hierarchical, and the duties and obligations of each caste were defined by the custom and tradition of the village. The Brahmins were at the top of the hierarchy, and they performed religious rituals and ceremonies for the other castes. The Kshatriyas were responsible for the defense of the village, and they provided protection to the other castes. The Vaishyas were responsible for trade and commerce, and they provided goods and services to the other castes. The Shudras were responsible for manual labor, and they worked for the other castes.

The system worked on the principle of reciprocity, where each caste provided goods and services to the other castes, and in return, they received goods and services from the other castes. The relationship between the Jajmans (patrons) and Kaminas (service providers) was not only economic but also social and emotional. The Jajmans were responsible for the welfare of the Kaminas, and they provided them with financial and emotional support in times of need. In return, the Kaminas provided them with their services and loyalty.

Historical Development of the Jajmani System: The Jajmani system is believed to have originated in the Vedic period when the society was divided into four varnas or castes. The system was prevalent in the rural parts of India and continued even after independence. The system was based on the exchange of goods and services between different castes, and the duties and obligations were defined by the custom and tradition of the village. The system was hierarchical, and the relationship between the Jajmans and Kaminas was not only economic but also social and emotional.

Impact and Criticism of the Jajmani System: The Jajmani system was criticized for being exploitative and perpetuating caste-based discrimination. The system was hierarchical, and the lower castes were dependent on the upper castes for their livelihood. The system was also criticized for perpetuating the notion of purity and pollution, where the Brahmins were considered pure, and the Shudras were considered impure.

The Jajmani system was also criticized for being an obstacle to social mobility. The lower castes were not allowed to move out of their traditional occupations, and they were denied access to education and other opportunities. The system was also criticized for being an obstacle to economic development, as it did not encourage competition and innovation.

In conclusion, the Jajmani system was a complex system that existed in the rural parts of India. The system was based on the exchange of goods and services between different castes, and the duties and obligations were defined by the custom and tradition of the village. The system was hierarchical, and the relationship between the Jajmans and Kaminas was not only economic but also social and emotional. The system was criticized for being exploitative, perpetuating caste-based discrimination, and being an obstacle to social mobility and economic development. The Jajmani system is no longer prevalent in modern India, and it has been replaced by other forms of social and economic relationships.

Roles and Responsibilities of Jajmans and Kaminas in the Jajmani System

The Jajmani system, also known as the patron-client relationship, is a traditional system of social organization that exists in some parts of rural India. The system is based on a hierarchy of castes, with each caste having specific roles and responsibilities in relation to other castes. At the top of the hierarchy are the Jajmans, who are patrons and the Kaminas who are clients, are at the bottom. In this article, we will discuss the roles and responsibilities of Jajmans and Kaminas in the Jajmani system under the sociological perspective.

Roles and Responsibilities of Jajmans: The Jajmans are the patrons in the Jajmani system. They are usually from the higher castes and have a high social status in the community. The primary responsibility of the Jajmans is to provide economic and social support to the Kaminas, who are their clients. This support may include financial assistance, food, and other resources that are necessary for the Kaminas to sustain themselves and their families. In return, the Kaminas provide labor and services to the Jajmans.

The Jajmans are also responsible for the welfare of the Kaminas. They provide assistance in times of need, such as during illness or death in the family. They may also provide education and training to the Kaminas to help them improve their skills and enhance their economic opportunities.

Another important role of the Jajmans is to maintain social harmony and order in the community. They act as mediators and arbitrators in disputes between different castes and families. They also provide leadership and guidance to the community on social, cultural, and religious matters.

Roles and Responsibilities of Kaminas: The Kaminas are the clients in the Jajmani system. They are usually from the lower castes and have a lower social status in the community. Their primary responsibility is to provide labor and services to the Jajmans in exchange for economic and social support.

The Kaminas may provide a variety of services to the Jajmans, including agricultural labor, domestic work, and artisanal services. They may also provide entertainment and perform cultural and religious rituals for the Jajmans.

The Kaminas are also responsible for maintaining good relations with the Jajmans. They must show respect and deference to the Jajmans at all times and must be available to provide services when needed. They are expected to be loyal and obedient to their patrons and to follow the social norms and customs of the Jajmani system.

In conclusion, the Jajmani system is a complex social organization that plays an important role in the economic and social life of rural communities in India. The roles and responsibilities of Jajmans and Kaminas are central to the functioning of the system. While the system has been criticized for its hierarchical nature and potential for exploitation, it has also been praised for its ability to maintain social order and provide economic and social support to those in need. As India continues to modernize and urbanize, it is likely that the Jajmani system will continue to evolve and adapt to changing social and economic conditions.

Caste and Occupation in the Jajmani System

The Jajmani system is an economic and social organization prevalent in rural India, where various castes are interdependent on each other for their livelihoods. In this system, each caste specializes in a particular occupation, and the members of that caste provide their services to other castes in exchange for food grains and other basic necessities. The Jajmani system is an integral part of the caste system in India, where caste and occupation are closely linked. In this article, we will discuss in depth the relationship between caste and occupation in the Jajmani system.

Caste and Occupation in the Jajmani System: The Jajmani system is based on the division of labor among different castes. Each caste specializes in a particular occupation, which is passed down from generation to generation. The occupations are often determined by the traditional skills and knowledge of the caste members. For example, the Brahmins are traditionally priests and scholars, while the Jat and Gujjar castes are traditionally farmers and herders.

In the Jajmani system, the Jajman caste is the dominant caste, and the other castes are dependent on them for their livelihoods. The Jajman caste provides patronage to the other castes and, in return, receives their services. The services provided by the other castes include agricultural labor, cattle rearing, leatherwork, carpentry, and blacksmithing, among others. The Jajman caste, in turn, provides the other castes with food grains and other basic necessities.

The relationship between caste and occupation in the Jajmani system is very strong. The caste system in India is based on the principle of endogamy, which means that each caste is restricted to marrying within its own caste. This restriction ensures that the occupation is passed down from generation to generation within the same caste. It also ensures that the traditional skills and knowledge of the caste are preserved and passed down from one generation to the next.

The Jajmani system has been criticized for being a rigid and oppressive system that perpetuates inequality and discrimination. The lower castes are often exploited by the dominant Jajman caste, who provides them with only the basic necessities of life. The lower castes are also restricted from pursuing other occupations, as their traditional occupation is passed down from generation to generation. This restriction limits their economic opportunities and perpetuates their poverty.

In conclusion, the Jajmani system is an economic and social organization prevalent in rural India, where various castes are interdependent on each other for their livelihoods. The system is based on the division of labor among different castes, with each caste specializing in a particular occupation. The Jajman caste is the dominant caste, and the other castes are dependent on them for their livelihoods. The relationship between caste and occupation in the Jajmani system is very strong, and the traditional skills and knowledge of the caste are preserved and passed down from generation to generation within the same caste. However, the system has also been criticized for perpetuating inequality and discrimination, and for limiting the economic opportunities of the lower castes.

Economic and Social Relations in the Jajmani System

The Jajmani system is a traditional occupational hierarchy prevalent in rural India, where each caste group specializes in a particular occupation and provides services to higher-caste patrons known as Jajmans. The lower-caste service providers, also known as Kaminas, are dependent on the Jajmans for their livelihood, and the Jajmans, in turn, provide patronage to the Kaminas. This system has been the backbone of the rural Indian economy and social structure for centuries. In this article, we will explore the economic and social relations that exist within the Jajmani system.

Economic Relations: The Jajmani system is essentially an exchange system where the Kaminas provide services to the Jajmans in return for patronage. The services provided by the Kaminas range from agricultural labor to specialized services such as carpentry, metalwork, weaving, and leatherwork. The Jajmans, in turn, provide the Kaminas with food grains, cash, and other forms of patronage such as protection, legal aid, and social recognition.

The economic relations between the Jajmans and the Kaminas are characterized by mutual dependence. The Jajmans depend on the Kaminas for their labor and specialized services, while the Kaminas depend on the Jajmans for their livelihood. The Jajmans are responsible for ensuring the economic well-being of the Kaminas, and this relationship is based on a system of reciprocity.

Social Relations: The Jajmani system is also characterized by social relations between the Jajmans and the Kaminas. The Jajmans are generally of a higher social status than the Kaminas, and this relationship is based on the idea of social hierarchy. The Kaminas are expected to be subservient to the Jajmans and to show deference to them. The Jajmans, in turn, are responsible for providing social recognition to the Kaminas, and this recognition is based on a system of mutual obligation.

The social relations between the Jajmans and the Kaminas are complex and multifaceted. The Jajmans are responsible for providing social recognition to the Kaminas, which includes recognition of their specialized skills and knowledge. The Jajmans also provide protection to the Kaminas, especially in times of conflict or social unrest. The Kaminas, in turn, are responsible for showing deference to the Jajmans and for being loyal to them.

In conclusion, the Jajmani system has been a fundamental aspect of the rural Indian economy and social structure for centuries. The economic and social relations that exist within the Jajmani system are characterized by mutual dependence, reciprocity, and social hierarchy. The Jajmans are responsible for ensuring the economic well-being of the Kaminas, while the Kaminas are responsible for providing specialized services to the Jajmans. The social relations between the Jajmans and the Kaminas are based on the idea of social hierarchy, where the Jajmans are of a higher social status than the Kaminas. The Jajmani system has played an important role in shaping the social and economic structure of rural India and continues to be an important aspect of rural life.

Changing Dynamics of the Jajmani System in Modern India

The Jajmani system is a traditional socio-economic arrangement that is prevalent in rural parts of India. It is a system of occupational specialization in which each caste or community is responsible for providing goods or services to another caste. This system has been in existence in India for centuries and has played a crucial role in maintaining the social and economic structure of rural India. However, with the advent of modernization and globalization, the Jajmani system has undergone significant changes. In this article, we will discuss the changing dynamics of the Jajmani system in modern India.

Historical Perspective: The Jajmani system has its roots in the caste system of India. The caste system divides society into different castes, each with its own duties and responsibilities. The Jajmani system emerged as a result of this division of labor. Each caste was assigned a specific task that they were expected to perform for other castes. The Jajmani system was an essential part of the rural economy in India, as it ensured a steady supply of goods and services to all sections of society.

The Jajmani system has been in existence for centuries, and it has undergone many changes over the years. In the past, the system was based on personal relationships between the Jajmans and Kaminas. The Jajmans were the patrons who provided economic and social support to the Kaminas, who in turn provided goods and services to the Jajmans. This system was based on trust and mutual obligation.

Changing Dynamics: The Jajmani system has undergone significant changes in recent years due to modernization and globalization. With the growth of urbanization, many young people are leaving the villages in search of better employment opportunities in cities. This has led to a shortage of skilled workers in rural areas, and the Jajmani system has been unable to adapt to this changing scenario. As a result, many Kaminas have started seeking employment outside their traditional occupations.

Another factor that has contributed to the changing dynamics of the Jajmani system is the decline of the caste system. With the growth of education and awareness, many people have started challenging the traditional caste system. The younger generation is more inclined towards modern and egalitarian values, and they are less interested in following traditional caste norms. This has led to a decline in the traditional patron-client relationships that were the cornerstone of the Jajmani system.

The Jajmani system is also facing challenges from the market economy. With the growth of capitalism and globalization, the demand for goods and services has increased, and people are more willing to pay for these services. This has led to the emergence of new service providers who are not part of the traditional Jajmani system.

In conclusion, the Jajmani system has been a crucial part of the rural economy in India for centuries. However, with the advent of modernization and globalization, the system has undergone significant changes. The decline of the caste system, the growth of urbanization, and the emergence of new service providers have all contributed to the changing dynamics of the Jajmani system. The Jajmani system is still prevalent in some parts of India, but it is facing many challenges in the modern world.

Critiques and Debates Surrounding the Jajmani System

The Jajmani system, also known as the patron-client system, is a traditional socio-economic structure that has been prevalent in India for centuries. This system is based on a reciprocal relationship between the higher caste landowners, known as jajmans, and the lower caste service providers, known as kaminas. The jajmans provide patronage to the kaminas in the form of land, grain, and money, while the kaminas offer various services to the jajmans, such as farming, herding, weaving, and other types of manual labor. However, the Jajmani system has been subject to various critiques and debates regarding its ethical and practical implications. This article explores these debates in detail and analyzes the changing dynamics of the Jajmani system in modern India.

Critiques of the Jajmani System: The Jajmani system has been criticized for perpetuating inequality and oppression within society. The system is based on the rigid caste hierarchy, which restricts social mobility and opportunities for the lower castes. The kaminas are often forced to perform menial and degrading tasks, and they have limited access to education and economic resources. Moreover, the jajmans hold significant power and influence over the kaminas, and this power dynamic can lead to exploitation and abuse. The kaminas are often subjected to unfair treatment, such as low wages, long working hours, and poor living conditions.

Furthermore, the Jajmani system has been criticized for being exploitative and unproductive. Critics argue that the system creates a cycle of dependency, where the kaminas are reliant on the jajmans for their livelihood. This dependence makes it difficult for the kaminas to pursue other economic opportunities or to improve their social and economic status. Additionally, the jajmans often prioritize their own interests over the needs of the kaminas, and this can lead to economic inefficiencies and social tensions.

Debates Surrounding the Jajmani System: Despite these critiques, there are also debates surrounding the Jajmani system’s practicality and effectiveness. Supporters of the system argue that it provides a stable and reliable source of income for the kaminas, and it ensures that their basic needs are met. Moreover, the system fosters a sense of community and social cohesion, as the jajmans and kaminas are bound by reciprocal obligations and mutual trust. This sense of community can help to alleviate social tensions and conflicts.

Additionally, some scholars have argued that the Jajmani system has adapted and evolved to suit the changing needs of society. For example, in modern India, the Jajmani system has expanded to include new professions and services, such as transportation, education, and healthcare. Furthermore, the system has become more flexible and inclusive, with some jajmans offering patronage to kaminas from different castes and communities.

In conclusion, the Jajmani system is a complex and multifaceted socio-economic structure that has been subject to various critiques and debates. While the system provides a stable source of income for the kaminas and fosters a sense of community and social cohesion, it also perpetuates inequality and oppression within society. The changing dynamics of the Jajmani system in modern India reflect the system’s adaptability and flexibility, as well as its ongoing challenges and limitations. Ultimately, the future of the Jajmani system will depend on its ability to address these critiques and debates and to evolve in response to changing social and economic conditions.

The Future of the Jajmani System in India

The Jajmani system is a traditional system of exchange and reciprocity that has been prevalent in many parts of India for centuries. It is a hierarchical system where each occupational group or caste provides specific services to the higher castes, who, in turn, provide economic and social support. This system has undergone many changes over the years, but it continues to play a significant role in the economic and social lives of people in rural India. In this article, we will examine the current state of the Jajmani system and explore the possibilities for its future.

Current State of the Jajmani System: The Jajmani system has been declining over the years due to various factors such as urbanization, industrialization, and modernization. With the advent of modern technologies and communication systems, people are no longer limited to their local areas, and they can easily access goods and services from outside their immediate communities. This has led to a decrease in the demand for services offered by the Jajmani system. Additionally, the younger generation is no longer interested in continuing their family occupations and are opting for more lucrative and modern careers.

However, the Jajmani system still exists in many rural areas of India, particularly in the northern parts of the country. The system provides a sense of security and stability for people in these areas, and they continue to rely on it for their economic and social needs. Many people in rural areas still follow traditional occupations such as farming, weaving, and pottery-making, and they continue to provide their services to the higher castes in exchange for economic and social support.

Future of the Jajmani System: The future of the Jajmani system in India is uncertain. While it continues to play a significant role in the lives of people in rural areas, it is facing many challenges that may lead to its eventual demise. The younger generation is no longer interested in continuing their family occupations, and they are opting for more modern careers that offer better opportunities for upward mobility.

Additionally, the Jajmani system is criticized for perpetuating caste-based discrimination and social inequalities. The lower castes are often forced to provide their services to the higher castes, and they are not allowed to pursue other occupations. This has led to a lack of social mobility and economic opportunities for the lower castes.

In conclusion, the Jajmani system has played a significant role in the economic and social lives of people in rural India for centuries. While it continues to exist in many parts of the country, it is facing many challenges that may lead to its eventual demise. The younger generation is no longer interested in continuing their family occupations, and the system is criticized for perpetuating caste-based discrimination and social inequalities. The future of the Jajmani system in India is uncertain, but it is clear that it needs to evolve to address the changing needs and aspirations of the people who rely on it.

Comparative Analysis of the Jajmani System with Other Economic Systems

The Jajmani system is a traditional form of economic organization found in parts of rural India. It is a system of interdependence between different castes or social groups, where the higher caste or jajmans provide patronage to the lower caste or kaminas in return for services. This system has been a subject of study and debate in sociology and anthropology, with scholars analyzing its structure, functioning, and implications for social relations and economic development. In this article, we will explore the comparative analysis of the Jajmani system with other economic systems.
Comparison with Capitalism: The Jajmani system is often contrasted with capitalism, which is based on market exchange and profit-driven motives. Unlike capitalism, the Jajmani system is embedded in social relations and governed by norms of reciprocity and obligation. Jajmans provide patronage to kaminas not for profit but as a duty towards their caste and tradition. Kaminas, in turn, are obligated to provide services to jajmans, regardless of their profitability or market demand. This creates a system of social solidarity that is absent in capitalism, where economic relations are impersonal and market-driven.
Comparison with Feudalism: The Jajmani system is also compared to feudalism, which was prevalent in medieval Europe. Feudalism was characterized by a system of hierarchical relationships between lords and vassals, where lords provided protection to vassals in exchange for loyalty and services. Similarly, the Jajmani system involves a hierarchical relationship between jajmans and kaminas, where jajmans provide patronage and protection to kaminas in exchange for services and loyalty. However, unlike feudalism, the Jajmani system is not based on land ownership or military power, but on caste and tradition.
Comparison with Gift Economy: The Jajmani system is sometimes classified as a gift economy, which is based on reciprocal exchange of goods and services without the use of money. In a gift economy, individuals give gifts to each other as a sign of respect, gratitude, or social obligation. The Jajmani system also involves the exchange of goods and services without the use of money, but it is based on a hierarchical relationship between jajmans and kaminas, rather than on equal reciprocity between individuals. Moreover, the Jajmani system is not purely based on gifts, as jajmans provide patronage to kaminas in return for services that are expected to be rendered.
Comparison with Modern Wage Labor: The Jajmani system is compared to modern wage labor, which is based on the exchange of labor for wages. Wage labor is a contractual relationship between employers and employees, where employers pay wages to employees for their labor. Unlike wage labor, the Jajmani system is not based on a contractual relationship, as jajmans and kaminas are linked by caste and tradition rather than by a legal agreement. Moreover, the Jajmani system is not based on the principle of individual labor or productivity, as kaminas provide services to jajmans as a caste obligation rather than as a means of earning a livelihood.
In conclusion, the Jajmani system is a unique economic system that is distinct from capitalism, feudalism, gift economy, and modern wage labor. It is based on hierarchical relationships between castes, where jajmans provide patronage and protection to kaminas in exchange for services and loyalty. The Jajmani system is embedded in social relations and governed by norms of reciprocity and obligation, creating a system of social solidarity that is absent in market-driven economies. The comparative analysis of the Jajmani system with other economic systems highlights its unique features and its implications for social and economic development.
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