Key Historical Figures and Events in Modern India

The modern history of India has been marked by various terms and concepts that have played a significant role in shaping the country’s political, social, and economic landscape. Here is an in-depth glossary of some important modern Indian terms and concepts:

Indian National Congress (INC): The Indian National Congress is one of the oldest and most prominent political parties in India. It was founded in 1885 by A.O. Hume and played a crucial role in India’s struggle for independence from British colonial rule. The INC advocated for a united India and was instrumental in mobilizing public support for various movements against British rule.

Swadeshi Movement: The Swadeshi Movement was a part of India’s struggle for independence and was launched in 1905 as a response to the partition of Bengal by the British. It encouraged Indians to boycott British goods and promote indigenous products, thus fostering a sense of national pride and self-reliance.

Non-Cooperation Movement: Initiated by Mahatma Gandhi in 1920, the Non-Cooperation Movement aimed to nonviolently resist British rule by boycotting British institutions, products, and services. It gained widespread participation from Indians across the country and significantly increased nationalist sentiment.

Civil Disobedience Movement: The Civil Disobedience Movement, launched by Mahatma Gandhi in 1930, urged Indians to peacefully disobey specific British laws and pay taxes as a form of protest. It led to widespread mass movements and acts of nonviolent resistance against British rule.

Quit India Movement: The Quit India Movement, also known as the August Movement, was launched by Mahatma Gandhi in 1942, demanding an immediate end to British rule in India. It was a significant turning point in the struggle for independence, leading to widespread protests and civil disobedience.

Partition of India: The partition of India in 1947 resulted in the creation of two independent nations, India and Pakistan. It led to widespread communal violence, mass migrations, and the largest human migration in history, with millions of people displaced and numerous lives lost.

Indian Constitution: The Indian Constitution, adopted on January 26, 1950, is the supreme law of India and lays down the framework for the country’s political system, fundamental rights, and the division of powers between the central and state governments.

Green Revolution: The Green Revolution in India, initiated in the late 1960s, aimed to increase agricultural productivity through the adoption of high-yielding varieties of seeds, modern agricultural practices, and the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides.

Five-Year Plans: The Five-Year Plans are comprehensive economic development initiatives initiated by the Indian government to achieve specific socio-economic targets and promote growth and development in various sectors.

Emergency (1975-1977): The Emergency, declared by then-Prime Minister Indira Gandhi in 1975, suspended civil liberties and imposed censorship on the media. It was a controversial period in India’s history marked by authoritarian rule and widespread human rights violations.

Economic Liberalization: Economic liberalization, initiated in 1991, aimed to open up the Indian economy to global markets, reduce trade barriers, attract foreign investments, and stimulate economic growth. It led to significant changes in India’s economic policies and international trade.

Information Technology (IT) Revolution: The IT revolution in India refers to the rapid growth of the information technology and software services industry, making India a global hub for IT outsourcing and software development.

Right to Information (RTI) Act: The RTI Act, enacted in 2005, empowers citizens to seek information from public authorities and promote transparency and accountability in government functioning.

Goods and Services Tax (GST): The GST is a comprehensive indirect tax levied on the supply of goods and services throughout India, replacing various central and state taxes. It was implemented in 2017 to streamline the taxation system and promote ease of doing business.

Make in India: Make in India is an initiative launched in 2014 to encourage multinational and domestic companies to manufacture their products in India, thereby promoting job creation, economic growth, and self-reliance.

Aadhaar: Aadhaar is a unique 12-digit identification number issued to Indian residents, based on their biometric and demographic data. It has become an essential part of various government schemes and services.

Jan Dhan Yojana: Jan Dhan Yojana, launched in 2014, aims to provide financial inclusion to all Indian households by ensuring access to banking facilities, financial literacy, and insurance services.

Digital India: Digital India is a flagship initiative launched in 2015 to promote digital literacy, increase internet connectivity, and leverage technology to improve governance and service delivery.

Ayushman Bharat: Ayushman Bharat, launched in 2018, is a national health protection scheme that aims to provide health insurance coverage to economically vulnerable families for secondary and tertiary healthcare services.

Swachh Bharat Abhiyan: Swachh Bharat Abhiyan is a nationwide cleanliness campaign launched in 2014 to promote cleanliness, hygiene, and sanitation across India.

These terms and concepts have played a crucial role in shaping modern India’s journey and continue to influence its development, governance, and society. 

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